Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) <p>The Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences (JHSS) at Dar es Salaam University College of Education (University of Dar es Salaam) is an interdisciplinary refereed journal that disseminates original research works, scientific review works, and proposals for methodological shifts in these fields: anthropology, archeology, development studies, economics, fine art, gender issues, general linguistics, geography, history, language studies, language in education, literary studies, performing art, philosophy, political science and public administration, among others. The journal also seeks to publish high-quality creations and innovations of the theoretical frameworks in the disciplines mentioned.</p> <p> </p> en-US (Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences (DUCE)) (IT Department) Tue, 18 Jun 2024 18:47:34 +0300 OJS 60 Operation Villagization and Its Implications for Wildlife Conservation in South-western Serengeti, Tanzania: The Case of Maswa Game Reserve, ca. 1970s–1980s <p>Operation Villagization in Tanzania attracted the attention of many scholars, including<br>historians, inside and outside the country. This is because it is one of the major<br>policies in the history of Tanzania that affected many sectors. Despite the extensive<br>scope of these studies, minimal attention has been devoted to exploring the<br>connections between this operation and wildlife conservation. The current article<br>uses the case of the Maswa Game Reserve (MGR) to examine the extent to which the<br>operation affected wildlife resources conservation. In essence, it argues that poor<br>implementation of the operation led to enormous encroachments in the MGR, which<br>in turn reduced its size by more than 15 percent following several realignments of its<br>western boundary. This led to loss of wildlife habitats and dispersal areas for both<br>residents and migratory ungulates. Moreover, the operation led to a significant loss<br>of wild animals in both the MGR and the Serengeti National Park owing to increased<br>organised poaching activities, and the commercialisation of game meat.<br><br>(Received: 19 January 2024; Accepted: 6 April 2024; Revised: 25 April 2024)</p> James Benedict Kuboja, Hezron Kangalawe Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) Tue, 18 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Distinguishing Criteria for Compound Nouns and Noun Phrases in Kiswahili <p>Compound nouns and noun phrases tend to confuse because some of the principles<br>governing the formation of the two nominal forms are interrelated. For example,<br>both are made up of two or more words with the main word governing the<br>compound or phrase. Linguists use various criteria to distinguish a compound noun<br>from a noun phrase, including prosody, meaning, lexical cohesion, and<br>orthography. However, these criteria still present difficulty distinguishing a<br>compound noun from a noun phrase. For instance, it is difficult to tell whether the<br>words soko dogo ‘small market’ constitute a compound noun or a noun phrase. This<br>is because it is not clear as to which criteria really distinguish a compound noun<br>from a noun phrase. This article explores the criteria that can distinguish a<br>compound noun from a noun phrase without any ambiguity in Kiswahili language.<br>It is revealed that most words do not fit in the meaning criterion, stress criterion<br>or orthography. The lexical cohesion criterion looks better because many words fit<br>in it. However, some words do not fit all the criteria due to historical changes in<br>the language that have caused changes in structure and meaning.<br>Key words:&nbsp; criteria, prosody</p> Faraja Mwendamseke Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) Tue, 18 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The Socio-economic Dynamics Limiting Actions to Combat Child Labour in Tanzania: The Case of Small-Scale Gold Mining Communities in Tabora Region <p>This article is based on a study that sought to establish the dynamics that limit actions<br>to combat child labour in small-scale gold mining communities in Tanzania. A<br>qualitative research approach was used to gain a nuanced understanding of the<br>contextual dynamics that limit actions to combat child labour. Other relevant data<br>were sourced from grey literature. Thematic analysis of the collected qualitative data<br>established that the factors limiting actions to combat child labour in small-scale gold<br>mining communities emanate from both household settings and the community at<br>large. The study results revealed several factors that constrain efforts to combat child<br>labour in small-scale gold mining communities. The factors include: wrong perception<br>of communities towards child labour; inadequate parental care; child-headed<br>households valuing small-scale gold mining activities as the major source of income;<br>valuing children’s contribution to the economic well-being of households; the<br>tendency of children adopting their parents’ mining occupation; undervaluing of<br>children’s formal education; and high expectations of becoming rich through mining<br>activities. To curtail child labour in small-scale gold mining communities, there needs<br>to be efforts to address this problem right from the top tier of the government<br>governance to the community level. Policy and legal frameworks against child labour<br>should be enforced, small-scale gold miners should be given specialised training on<br>modern gold mining techniques that are not labour-intensive, and the competent<br>authorities should raise awareness at the community level on the importance and<br>benefits of schooling and children’s education. Also, further research should be carried<br>to establish new strategies for monitoring and controlling child labour in small-scale<br>gold mining communities by taking cognizance of the prevailing socio-economic<br>factors that undermine the current efforts to curtail child labour in the sector.<br><br></p> Elliott P. Niboye Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) Tue, 18 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The Indigenization of Tobacco Farming and Its Challenges in Iringa District: 1960s–1980s <p>This paper is about the politics of indigenizing tobacco farming and the challenges<br>associated with it during the post-colonial era. It examines the initiatives of<br>government in facilitating the process, and how the bodies entrusted to ensure its<br>implementation failed to achieve the intended goal. Tobacco farming in Africa and<br>Tanzania has a complex history. Since this crop is essentially labour- and capital-<br>intensive, its beginning in colonial Tanganyika, and Iringa in particular, was dominated<br>by settler farmers. The paper progressively narrates this history, especially on how it<br>became a popular crop among indigenous smallholders in Iringa from 1961. It traces<br>the practice during the colonial time when policies allowed only Greek settlers in<br>Iringa to be involved in tobacco farming, while the indigenous were prohibited from<br>growing it on some grounds, including the fear of competition. The article describes<br>the transformation: how Africans indigenized the crop, while also battling the<br>turbulence of prices, labour issues and changing times in colonial and post-colonial<br>Tanganyika. Based on archival, oral accounts, and documentary sources the paper<br>unravels the institutions that supported the production and marketing of tobacco in<br>Iringa. By engaging the question of the indigenization of tobacco in Iringa, it<br>interrogates the nexus between the processes of Africanizing tobacco growing within<br>the complex capitalist economy of pricing and national economic priorities. The paper<br>concludes by asserting that although the government supported and financed<br>indigenous smallholders in Iringa in tobacco farming, the bodies entrusted to foresee<br>its operation failed to fulfil the goal as anticipated by farmers.<br><br></p> Emmanuel John Kihongo Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) Tue, 18 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Men and Women in Uniform: Insiders’ Perspectives on Women’s Leadership Status in Tanzania People’s Defence Forces <p>This paper examines the leadership status of women in the Tanzania People’s Defence<br>Forces (TPDF). It was guided by three specific objectives: to understand the position<br>of women’s leadership role; identify the challenges constraining women from holding<br>leadership positions; and to examine the measures being taken to enable women hold<br>leadership positions in the TPDF. It collected opinions from the research participants<br>serving—or who served—in the military regarding the position of women as leaders.<br>The study leading to the paper employed a qualitative research approach to collect<br>data from 22 purposively selected respondents. The study found that women hold low<br>leadership status within the TPDF as the majority of senior leadership positions are<br>predominantly held by men. The findings further showed that while some measures<br>have been taken to uplift women’s careers in the military, there are contextual and<br>cultural barriers that still constrain them from holding senior leadership positions.<br>Contextually, there is a laxity in underscoring gender mainstreaming despite the<br>institutional initiatives to address gender diversity gaps in the TPDF. Culturally, there<br>are still uncertainties over the position that women should occupy in the military. A<br>long history of presenting the military as a male career still discourages a significant<br>gender transformation in the military, thereby engendering the adoption of an<br>incremental approach to women’s acquisition of leadership roles in the TPDF. Thus,<br>to effectively coordinate women’s empowerment initiatives in the military, the study<br>recommends the formulation of a gender policy for the armed forces.<br><br></p> Martin Mujuni, Edwin Babeiya Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) Tue, 18 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Thinking like Nyerere’: Authority Argumentation by Quotation in Tanzanian Parliamentary Discourse <p>This article examines the manner in which members of parliament (MPs) from one<br>political group in Tanzania appeal to the figure of Mwalimu Nyerere through<br>quotations to back up what they are themselves saying, or attack the political actions<br>of other groups during parliamentary debates. The analysed instances of parliamentary<br>quotations are presented in extracts, which are sourced from two parliamentary<br>debates on the annual ministerial budget speeches by the then Minister for Labour<br>and Employment, and the Minister for Community Development, Gender and Children<br>in the 2015/16 fiscal year. The research data were collected from the website of the<br>Tanzanian parliament as online Hansard transcripts. The MPs’ authority arguments by<br>quotation are analysed from the perspective of pragma-dialectics to establish their<br>effectiveness and reasonableness. The findings indicate that the MPs from one political<br>group cite specific voices of Mwalimu Nyerere to suggest that they think like him, or<br>follow his footsteps; while those from the other political groups do not. The findings<br>further suggest that, while some of such arguments could be considered reasonable,<br>others do not satisfy the dialectical goal of reasonableness, although they seem to be<br>effective. The analysis of authority argumentation by quotation in the Tanzanian<br>parliament is significant for developing research interests in African parliamentary<br>discourse, and it contributes to the pragma-dialectical research on parliamentary<br>argumentation in Africa. Thus, it benefits researchers in African parliamentary<br>discourse, argumentation theory, discourse studies, and other related fields. Further<br>research can investigate other salient features of African parliamentary or political<br>discourse, including the role of metaphor and other figurative expressions in<br>influencing political decisions that influence the electorate.<br><br></p> Brighton Msagalla Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) Tue, 18 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Operation Kihamo: Sleeping Sickness Control and the Agrarian Question of the Kilombero Valley, 1940s–1961 <p>In the aftermath of the WWII, some historians have typified the post-war period as<br>akin to a second colonial occupation, characterised by ambitious development<br>initiatives. These initiatives, influenced in part by the aftermath of the war, were<br>also driven by government efforts to stimulate rural economic activity. Using the<br>example of sleeping sickness control in the Kilombero Valley as a case study of a<br>rural intervention, this paper examines how such campaigns were emblematic of<br>an underlying development agenda in the region. Drawing on empirical evidence<br>from archival research and fieldwork in the valley, we argue that government<br>interventions in sleeping sickness control went beyond mere eradication efforts.<br>Instead, the colonial administration used the epidemic as a pretext to enforce<br>stringent control measures and implement transformative rural development<br>programmes aimed at modernising the agricultural sector. These initiatives<br>included the establishment of concentrated settlements, the improvement of<br>farming practices among rural peasants, and the introduction of new crops and<br>mandatory cultivation of some selected subsistence and commercial crops.<br>Generally, sleeping sickness control campaigns were used as a caveat to implement<br>both overt and covert development objectives.<br><br></p> Geofrey Emmanuel Ntobi, Maxmillian Julius Chuhila Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) Tue, 18 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300