Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) 2024-02-29T07:53:11-08:00 Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences (DUCE) Open Journal Systems <p>The Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences (JHSS) at Dar es Salaam University College of Education (University of Dar es Salaam) is an interdisciplinary refereed journal that disseminates original research works, scientific review works, and proposals for methodological shifts in these fields: anthropology, archeology, development studies, economics, fine art, gender issues, general linguistics, geography, history, language studies, language in education, literary studies, performing art, philosophy, political science and public administration, among others. The journal also seeks to publish high-quality creations and innovations of the theoretical frameworks in the disciplines mentioned.</p> <p> </p> SULEDO Community-based Forest Reserve: A Contested Terrain between Peasants and Pastoralists in Kiteto District, 1990–2016 2024-02-29T06:50:05-08:00 Juma Marmo <p>This paper examines how the establishment of the SULEDO community forest reserve<br>caused land use conflicts between peasants and pastoralists in Kiteto District from<br>1990 to 2016. The peasants complained that the government had deliberately made<br>it possible for pastoralists to get more benefits from the reserve since they were<br>allowed to graze their livestock in the reserve, which took large parts of their former<br>agricultural land. Conversely, the grabbing of land by peasants in the forest reserve<br>caused complaints from the pastoralists who claimed that the peasants were<br>grabbing their grazing land in the reserve. Using archival sources, fieldwork<br>interviews, and secondary sources, the study found that the establishment of the<br>SULEDO, by de facto, favoured the pastoralists and directly affected the peasants. The<br>peasants interpreted the establishment of SULEDO as a confiscation of their land by<br>the government in the interest of the state and Maasai pastoralists. The reserve<br>authorities restricted the peasants from expanding their farms, did not allow them<br>to collect firewood and building materials, or undertake related activities in the<br>reserve. This planted seeds of hostility between the peasants and pastoralists. This<br>article argues that the government’s conversion of land into forest reserves without<br>considering the heterogeneity of the community in terms of land use, escalated<br>conflicts over land between the peasants and the pastoralists in Kiteto District.<br>Furthermore, the adoption of inappropriate approaches to conflict resolution did not<br>end the conflicts; instead, the conflicts changed their nature and magnitude.<br><br></p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) Pre-service Teachers’ Epistemological Understanding of the Language of Instruction: Can Education Policy Stop Kiswahili in Tanzania’s Classrooms? 2024-02-29T06:55:20-08:00 John Biseko <p>Language-in-education policies in Sub-Saharan Africa is a topic that has attracted<br>several researchers. The adoption of alien languages as legitimate languages of<br>instruction is a matter that has been seriously challenged. Since the 1960s, the debate<br>in Tanzania has been on which language qualifies for the status of LOI. The answers<br>have been favouring either the alien language (English) or the dominant language<br>(Kiswahili). In 2014 the government launched the education policy, which declares<br>both English and Kiswahili as LOI in post-primary education. In the 2023 edition, the<br>policy was changed to declare English as the sole LOI in post-primary education. This<br>study examined pre-service teachers’ epistemological understanding of using the two<br>languages as LOI. The epistemological understanding model proposed by Kuhn (1991)<br>was used as a conceptual framework. The data from interview revealed that the<br>participants had different epistemological understandings about the issue. The study,<br>therefore, provides a firm standing that pre-service teachers should be prepared and<br>assisted to attain evaluatism understanding for a reasonable selection of LOI in a<br>multilingual community like in Tanzania</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) Language Contest in the Linguistic Landscape of Sabasaba International Trade Exhibitions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 2024-02-29T07:01:44-08:00 Emmanuel Ilonga <p>This inquiry stems from the scarcity of research on linguistic landscape particularly<br>on the intersection between physical landscape, business fairs, and languages in Dar<br>es Salaam. Essentially, it discusses the complexities of linguistic signs at the Dar es<br>Salaam International Trade Fair (DITF) in Tanzania. The central purposes are<br>grounded in the roles of information and symbolism, power dynamics, group<br>identities, language policies, and rationale for the use of specific languages at the<br>fair. Photographic method was employed in the generation of data. The analysis of<br>data was framed in line with informational and symbolic frameworks, and<br>structuration principles. The findings unveil the superiority of Kiswahili and English<br>over other languages, which serve both informational and indexical roles. The<br>linguistic signs illustrate the identities of the makers. The rationale for using<br>Kiswahili, English, Chinese, Japanese; and the absence of ethnic community<br>languages has been justified. Fundamentally, the linguistic signs at the exhibitions<br>converge and deviate from the established language policies. Given the absence of<br>the ethnic languages in the fairgrounds, this article calls for inclusivity in the<br>competitive nature of languages in public spaces.<br>Keywords:&nbsp; <br><br></p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) A Morpho-semantic Description of Adjectives in Kipangwa 2024-02-29T07:14:49-08:00 Emmanuel Hauli Rafiki Sebonde Chrispina Alphonce <p>This paper presents the characteristics of a lexical category adjective in Kipangwa.<br>The lexical category adjective is proposed to be universal, but its realisation varies<br>across languages. This paper offers evidence to authenticate the presence of an<br>independent lexical category adjective in Kipangwa. The study employed a qualitative<br>approach in generating data, analysing the data and reporting the findings. The data<br>for this study were collected through text collections, both spoken and written.<br>Spoken texts/ sentences with adjectives were collected from 18 informants by<br>recording them through a digital audio recorder, while written texts were collected<br>from two (2) Bible storybooks in Kipangwa. The informants were sampled through<br>snowball sampling, whereas the storybooks in Kipangwa were purposefully sampled.<br>The paper reveals that, like other Bantu languages, Kipangwa has a class of adjectives<br>that may be underived or derived. In the derived form, the lexical category nouns and<br>verbs undergo morphological derivations to establish the adjectival category. The<br>paper also shows that Kipangwa has adjectives of different classifications based on<br>13 semantic classes as proposed by Dixon (2004). It further reveals that adjectives<br>agree in class, number, and person with the noun they modify in the noun phrase.<br>Furthermore, the paper shows that syntactically, adjectives in Kipangwa can occur in<br>the noun phrase’s attributive or predicative position. This paper adds knowledge and<br>understanding of lexical category adjective in Bantu languages.<br><br></p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) The Role of Cooperatives and Farmer-Industry Linkages in the Evolution of Tanga’s Dairy Innovation System 2024-02-29T07:21:36-08:00 Hezron Makundi Heric Thomas <p>This study investigated the development of Tanga’s dairy innovation system and its role<br>in promoting and maintaining relationships between farmers, the industry, and<br>cooperative unions; employing a case study approach. The main objective was to assess<br>the role of cooperatives in forging farmer-industry linkages and in improving dairy<br>industry innovations. 100 dairy producers in Tanga participated in the survey that led<br>to the paper. A questionnaire was used to collect data from randomly selected farmers.<br>Furthermore, 20 key informant interviews were conducted with various participants,<br>including the Tanga Dairy Cooperative Union livestock extension service providers.<br>Also, one Focus Group Discussion involving 12 participants from the aforementioned<br>stakeholders was held. The findings revealed that over the last three decades, Tanga’s<br>dairy innovation has evolved into a competitive innovation system. It has gone through<br>four phases: development of the capability of dairy farming (1985–1992), the formation<br>of the Dairy Cooperative Union (1993), the development of milk-processing capability<br>(1996–1997–2007), and the phase of improving the innovation capability of the whole<br>system (2008–present). The formal and informal contractual arrangements of the Tanga<br>Dairy Cooperative Union were found to be the primary means for sustaining close ties<br>between dairy farmers and the Tanga Fresh Ltd. These agreements have enhanced<br>collaboration and mutual learning that have contributed to a significant increase in<br>farmers’ milk production and Tanga Fresh Ltd’s processing capacity. Based on the<br>recorded achievements, this paper recommends for the adoption of the identified<br>innovative contractual model to other cattle-rich zones. However, it is also imperative<br>to address identified challenges such as fluctuation of trust between the farmers and<br>the cooperative, and cases of deviation from contractual obligations.<br><br></p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) “But he did not commit incest…!” A Comparative Analysis of Utenzi wa Nyakiiru Kibi and Oedipus Rex 2024-02-29T07:25:22-08:00 Angelus Mnenuka <p>Human beings share commonalities, many of which are intricately woven into<br>literature. Literary works allow individuals to explore and gain insights into diverse<br>cultures and ideas across spatiotemporal contexts. Against this backdrop, this study<br>compared two literary works, Oedipus Rex (Sophocles, 1992) and Utenzi wa Nyakiiru<br>Kibi [‘Epic of Nyakiiru-Kibi’] (Mulokozi, 1997), to gain insight into the two societies<br>from which the stories are derived. Using Aarne and Thompson’s (1961) classification<br>of the Oedipus story, the study finds that Utenzi wa Nyakiiru Kibi qualifies as an<br>Oedipal story as it meets several Oedipal narrative motifs in the Oedipus story. The<br>epic of Nyakiiru-Kibi presents an Oedipal narrative, a relatively scarce tale in Africa. It<br>presents a complex organisation in the Great Lakes Region, similar to ancient Greece.<br>The similarities between the stories reflect the comparability of sociology, culture<br>and political systems in ancient Greek kingdoms, the Kiziba kingdom and several<br>others in the Great Lakes of East Africa around the 15th century.<br><br></p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) Exploring the Value of Cannabis and Changing Mindset for Advancing Socio-economic Development in Tanzania, 1891–2023 2024-02-29T07:29:39-08:00 Iddy Ramadhani Magoti <p>This paper examines the origin, cultivation, laws, values, uses and other cultural<br>practices connected to cannabis in Tanzania, and other parts of the world, for the<br>purpose of contributing to the existing debate on whether cannabis should be<br>legalised or illegalised in Tanzania and other parts of Africa. The data for this study<br>were collected from both primary and secondary sources, including published<br>documents, oral sources, archival documents and newspapers. Based on the<br>evidence collected, I argue that the values and other benefits accrued from the<br>cultivation and uses of cannabis outweigh the negative impacts which policy<br>makers capitalize on to illegalise the plant. Furthermore, considering the<br>economic, medicinal, social, and cultural values of cannabis, there is a need for<br>enlightening the public to change the attitude towards cannabis so that it can be<br>used to advance the country’s socio-economic development.<br><br></p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS)